*HISTORY NOTES* FOR ALL COMPETATIVE EXAMS: The Competition between English and French

The Portuguese and Dutch had withdrawn from India unable to withstand the competition from French and English by 18th century. Finally, French and English resorted to show strength in order to establish their political supremacy over India. Meanwhile, political volatility aroused in the regions of Hyderabad and Carnatic (Eastern part of Tamil Nadu) and both the English and French tried to exploit the situation in their favour. This led to three Carnatic Wars.
Know this
Hyderabad Kingdom was established in 1724 by AsafJha. His feudatory ruler Dost Ali who was ruling Carnatic region was not loyal to him. The Marathas killed Dost Ali in 1740 and looted Carnatic and imprisoned his Son-in-law Chandasheb in Sathara. AsafJha named Anwaruddin as the Nawab of Carnatic in the place of Dost Ali.
First Carnatic War (1746-48):
On the request of Dupleix, La Bourdonnais, a French military leader from Mauritius invaded Madras and captured it. This forced the helpless British to request the help of Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Carnatic for support. The army sent by Anwaruddin failed to defeat the French at Madras. Finally, La Bourdonnais took money from the English and returned Madras and went back to Mauritius. This enraged Dupleix and attempted to take Madras but failed in it. Finally, this war ended with a treaty in Europe between France and England called‘Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle‘.
Know this:
The Nizam of Hyderabad, AsafJha died in 1748. A tussle started between his son Nasir Jung and his daughter’s son Mujaffar Jung for the throne. On the other hand, a fight had broken out between Chandasaheb(who was released from the Maratha prison) and Anwaruddin in Carnatic. French extended their support to Mujaffar Jung in Hyderbad and Chandasaheb in Cranatic. The English extended their supported Nasir Jung and Anwaurddin.
IN 1749, the combined forces of French, Chandasaheb and Mujaffar Jung defeated Anwaurddin and killed him in Ambur battle. As a result Chandsaheb became the ruler of Carnatic. Mahammad Ali, the son of Anwaruddin, stayed at Thiruchanapalli with the help of English. In Hyderabad, Mujaffar Jung became the Nizam by killing Nasir Jung with the help of French and Chandasaheb. He got killed after a few days. The French made Salabath Jung, another son of Asaf Jha as the Nizam of Hyderbad.
Second Carnatic War (1749-1754):

In the changed circumstances, French made Salabath Jung, another son of AsafJha as the Nizam of Hyderabad. An officer named Bussi was stationed in Hyderabad for his protection by French. In Carnatic Chandasaheb was the Nawab with the help of French. Robert Clive of East India Company attacked Arcot, the capital city of Carnatic and defeated Chandsaheb. Chandsaheb was imprisoned and later killed in this war. In the place of Chandsaheb, the English named Mahammad Ali, the son of Anwaruddin, as the Nawab of Carnatic. The second Carnatic war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry. French recalled Dupleix. This war brought laurels to English, while French suffered a political setback.
Third Carnatic War (1756-1763):
Comte de Lally of French attempted to besiege Wandiwash in 1760. In this decisive battle Sir Eyre Coote of the English army defeated the French and imprisoned Bussi. Lally escaped and hide in Pondicherry. Finally, Eyre Coote attacked Pondicherry and Lally had to surrender unconditionally in 1761.
French had to lose all their bases in India due to Carnatic wars. In spite of this, as per the ‘Treaty of Paris’ in 1763, Pondicherry was returned to French. With these developments, French lost their importance in India. Like this, English by defeating all their rivals, started consolidating their power over the Southern India.
Know this:
Robert Clive: Robert Clive, who laid the firm foundation of the British Power in India, had joined the East India Company as clerk. He played a decisive role in Carnatic wars, particularly in the siege of Arcot and played a prominent role in the British victory. He was successful in establishing the British rule over South India and was instrumental in Bengal victory also. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, he gained control over the Nawab of Bengal also. Clive amassed immense wealth in all these ventures and helped the East India Company to earn more profit. Clive returned to England with immense wealth rich and became the Member of Parliament. With the return of Clive to England, the East India Company started facing losses in its business. Even though, there were many allegations against Clive, the British government had to resend Clive to India to save the company and also save the face of the country.
The British won the Buxar battle and earned back its respect again. Clive was successful in securing the Dewani rights for the British over Bengal, Bihar and Odisha regions. This brought more wealth to Robert Clive and to East India Company as well.
Dupleix was named the Governor General of French regions in India in 1742. He dreamt of achieving French harmony over India and entered into treaties with the local kings. Hyder Ali was also trained in the army of locals raised by Dupleix. The British considered Dupleix as a formidable challenge to them. Hence, we notice clashes over between the French and the British to gain supremacy over Carnatic and Deccan Plateau. Dupleix played an important role in the First Carnatic War in 1746. The rivalry between the French and the British continued till 1754. Later, French government recalled Dupleix as it wanted peace.


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