**HISTORY NOTES FOR SSC AND OTHER COMPETATIVE EXAMS*** (Rajput Dynasties and The contributions of Rajput kings to Literature, Art and Architecture.)

After the rule of Vardhanas of Sthanaveeneshwara, most of the western and the northern India was ruled by Gurjara Prathiharas, Chandelas of Bundelkhand, Garhwalas, Solankis, Paramars, and many other Rajput dynasties. By the end of twelfth century, Rajput Kings like Prithviraj Chauhan, Jayachandra Gharwal, Paramardideva Chandela were the powerful kings of northern India.
Gurjara Prathiharas: The Prathiharas have claimed in many of their inscriptions, that the Laxmana of Ramayana period, a Kshatriya of Suryavamsha, as the founding person of their family. But as per the available evidences, Nagabhatta is the founder of this dynasty. The Prathiharas ruled Sindh region by keeping Kanuj as their capital city. They fought back the frequent Arab attacks. Mihara Boja and Mahendrapala, the powerful rulers of this dynasty, had defeated the Pala’s of Bengal and had extended their Prathihara kingdom till Bengal. An Arab traveller named Sulaiman had visited the court of Mihara Bhoja and has appreciated the kingdom as it had peace. Prathirhara rule declined during the rule Mahipala, who succeeded Mahendrapala.
Garhwalas: Chandradeva, the founder of this dynasity, ruled the northern India keeping Varanasi as his capital city. Govinda Chandra is another important ruler of this dynasty. He extended his rule till Malwa and Magadha by defeating Palas. He also defeated the kings of Kalinga and Odissa. The rulers of Kashmir, Gujarath and Chola had cordial relationship with Govinda Chandra.
Paramaras: Paramaras came to prominence after the decline of Prathiharas. Upendra Krishnaraja, the feudatory king of Rashtrakutas, founded this dynasty. Dharanagar was their capital. Bhoja is the most popular king of Paramaras dynasty. He extended the Paramaras state by defeating Kalyani Chalkuyas, Gangas of Kalinga and Northern Konkans. Though Bhoja experienced ups and downs in political sphere, he remained undefeated in the area of literature. He himself was a poet. As the kings who came after him were weak, the Paramar dynasty declined.
Solankis: Moolaraja I is the founder of this dynasty. Though Bheema I is the most famous king of this dynasty, he could not protect the Somanatha Temple from Ghazani’s invasion. After him, Moolaraja II and Veeradhawala were capable kings. Moolaraja II defeated Mohammed Ghazni near Mt Abu. During the rule of this dynasty, the famous Jain scholar Hemachandra compiled a Prakruth dictionary ‘Deshimala’. Ullaf khan and Nusrath Khan, the military generals of Allauddin Khilji defeated Karnadeva and made the kingdom of Solankis a part of Delhi Sultanate.
Chandelas:Dangha is the most famous king of Chandelas who prospered in Bundelkhand. In the beginning, Chandelas were the feudatory kings of Prathiharas. After the decline of Parmaras, Dhanga declared himself independent. He took hold of the eastern part of Parmaras kingdom, and extended his kingdom by defeating Pala and Aadras. Dhanga who had the title ‘Maharajadhiraja’ (King of Kings) extended military assistance to Hindu Shahi king Jayapala to fight back attacking Turks. Finally, due to the infighting and lack of unity among Rajputs, Khilji Sultans conquered this kingdom.
Prithviraj Chauhan
Chauhans: The Chauhan Dynasty is the most prominent among the Rajputs. The root of this dynasty is visible during 7th century. The dynasty started its rule in the Ajmer region of Rajasthan. The rulers ofthis dynasty; Ajaya Raja, Vigraharaja IV and Prithviraja III, made Chauhans the prominent rulers of the western Indiaduring 12th century. Prithviraj Chauhan, known for his bravery, defeated the Chandelas of Bundhelkhand gaining Maheba and Kalinjer. Prithiviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori at Terrain. Ghori wanted to extend his Ghor kingdom towards Sindh region. Mohammed Ghori, who was severely wounded in this battle, led another attack towards Delhi in the following year. He defeated Prithviraj Chauhan at Terrain the very place of previous battle. Prithivraj is an embodiment of Rajput valour and bravery.

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